Teaching Computing in a Multidisciplinary Way in History Classes in Elementary Schools – A Case Study

Nathalia da Cruz Alves, Christiane Gresse von Wangenheim, Pedro Eurico Rodrigues, Jean Carlo Rossa Hauck, Adriano Ferreti Borgatto

Abstract


Despite computing being virtually present in all sectors of our society, there is still a lack of knowledge and interest in learning about computing, in general due to the absence of the teaching of computing in elementary school. Teaching computing focusing only on digital literacy is no longer enough, as already in elementary school digital fluency need to be taught, including computational thinking and programming to prepare individuals adequately to deal with the challenges of the digital age. Thus, there is currently a global trend of concentrated efforts on computing education for this age group, and the multidisciplinary approach, combining computing to other disciplines already present within the scholar curriculum, has proven to be an efficient and effective way of teaching. In this context, the present study proposes an instructional unit for computing education in elementary school in a multidisciplinary way, integrated in history classes, following the K-12 curriculum guidelines for computer education and using the Scratch environment. The instructional unit is developed following an instructional design approach and is implemented and evaluated through a case study involving four classes in the fifth and seventh grades of an elementary school in Florianópolis/SC. The results indicate that the instructional unit and the use of Scratch enable the learning of basic computing concepts (specifically programming) in an effective and entertaining way and attract the interest and motivation of students to this knowledge area.


Keywords


Computer Science; History Teaching; Elementary School; Scratch; Programming; Computational thinking

References


Andrade, M., Silva, C., & Oliveira, T. (2013). Desenvolvendo games e aprendendo matemática utilizando o Scratch. Simpósio Brasileiro de Jogos e Entretenimento Digital. São Paulo, 260-263. Disponível em: http://www.sbgames.org/sbgames2013/proceedings/cultura/Culture-5_short.pdf. [Google Scholar]

Aureliano, V. C. O., & Tedesco, P. C. A. R. (2012). Avaliando o uso do Scratch como abordagem alternativa para o processo de ensino-aprendizagem de programação. In XX Workshop sobre Educação em Computação (p. 10). Disponível em: http://www.lbd.dcc.ufmg.br/colecoes/wei/2012/006.pdf. [Google Scholar]

Basili Victor, R., Gianluigi, C., & Dieter, R. H. (1994). Goal question metric paradigm. Encyclopedia of Software Engineering, 1(1), 578-583.

Branch, R. M. (2009). Instructional design: The ADDIE approach (Vol. 722). Springer Science & Business Media. [Google Scholar]

Brookhart, S. M. (2013). How to create and use rubrics for formative assessment and grading. Ascd. [Google Scholar]

Code.org. (2016). Disponível em: http://code.org. Acesso em: mar. 2016.

Franklin, D., Conrad, P., Aldana, G., & Hough, S. (2011, March). Animal tlatoque: attracting middle school students to computing through culturally-relevant themes. In Proceedings of the 42nd ACM technical symposium on Computer science education (pp. 453-458). ACM. doi:10.1145/1953163.1953295. [Google Scholar]

GOOGLE (2015). Searching for Computer Science: Access and Barriers in U.S. K-12 Education. Disponível em: http://services.google.com/fh/files/misc/searching-forcomputer-science_report.pdf. Acesso em: mar. 2015.

Herz, J. C. (1997). Joystick nation: How videogames ate our quarters, won our hearts, and rewired our minds. Little, Brown & Co. Inc.. [Google Scholar]

Iniciativa Computação na Escola. Disponível em: http://www.computacaonaescola.ufsc.br/. Acesso em: mar. 2016.

Jimenez, Y., & Gardner-McCune, C. (2015, August). Using App inventor & history as a gateway to engage African American students in computer science. In Research in Equity and Sustained Participation in Engineering, Computing, and Technology (RESPECT), 2015 (pp. 1-2). IEEE. doi:10.1109/RESPECT.2015.7296512. [Google Scholar]

Marcelino, R., Amérco, I. M., de Oliveira, J., & Santana, S. (2013). Utilização de mundos virtuais 3D para a educação básica. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Interactive Computer aided Blended Learning: 159-166. [Google Scholar]

Meachen, E. (2003). Technology Everywhere: A Campus Agenda for Educating and Managing Workers in the Digital Age (review). portal: Libraries and the Academy 3(2), 342-344. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Disponível em: https://muse.jhu.edu/article/42868/summary. [Google Scholar]

MILLAVIL, L. O. (2007). O ensino da história na sociedade do conhecimento: novas relações entre currículo e históriografia. CARRETERO et al. Ensino da História e Memória Coletiva. Trad. Valério Campos. Porto Alegre: Artmed. [Google Scholar]

MIT (2016). SCRATCH. Disponível em: http://scratch.mit.edu. Acesso em: mar. 2016.

Moreno-León, J., & Robles, G. (2015, November). Dr. Scratch: A web tool to automatically evaluate Scratch projects. In Proceedings of the Workshop in Primary and Secondary Computing Education (pp. 132-133). ACM. doi:10.1145/2818314.2818338. [Google Scholar]

Pazinato, A. M., & Teixeira, A. C. (2013). O uso do software Scratch no desenvolvimento da aprendizagem e na interação construtivista dos alunos. In Anais do XI Congresso Nacional de Educação–EDUCERE, Curitiba/Paraná. [Google Scholar]

PCN (2016). Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais, Terceiro e Quarto ciclos do Ensino Fundamental. MEC. Disponível em: http://portal.mec.gov.br/seb/arquivos/pdf/introducao.pdf. Acesso em: mar. 2016.

PCN (2016). Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais, Terceiro e Quarto ciclos do Ensino Fundamental, História. MEC. Disponível em: http://portal.mec.gov.br/seb/arquivos/pdf/pcn_5a8_historia.pdf. Acesso em: mar. 2016.

Pinto, A. S. (2010). Scratch na aprendizagem da Matemática no 1. º Ciclo do Ensino Básico: estudo de caso na resolução de problemas (Doctoral dissertation). [Google Scholar]

PROINFODATA (2016). Disponível em: http://proinfodata.c3sl.ufpr.br. Acesso em: mar. 2016.

Resnick, M., Maloney, J., Monroy-Hernández, A., Rusk, N., Eastmond, E., Brennan, K., ... & Kafai, Y. (2009). Scratch: programming for all. Communications of the ACM, 52(11), 60-67. doi:10.1145/1592761.1592779. [Google Scholar]

Santomé, J. T. (1998). Globalização e interdisciplinaridade: o currículo integrado.(Trad.). Cláudia Schlling. Porto Alegre: Artmed.

ScratchED - Relato de Karen Randall. Embedding Scratch in US History/Geography. Disponível em http://scratched.gse.harvard.edu/resources/embedding-scratch-us-historygeography. Acesso mar. 2015.

Seehorn, D., Carey, S., Fuschetto, B., Lee, I., Moix, D., O'Grady-Cunniff, D., ... & Verno, A. (2011). CSTA K--12 Computer Science Standards: Revised 2011. Disponível em: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2593249. [Google Scholar]

Watson, W. R., Mong, C. J., & Harris, C. A. (2011). A case study of the in-class use of a video game for teaching high school history. Computers & Education, 56(2), 466-474. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2010.09.007. [Google Scholar]

Wilson, A., & Moffat, D. C. (2010). Evaluating Scratch to introduce younger schoolchildren to programming. Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Psychology of Programming Interest Group (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Leganés, Spain. [Google Scholar]

Wohlin, C., Runeson, P., Höst, M., Ohlsson, M. C., Regnell, B., & Wesslén, A. (2012). Experimentation in software engineering. Springer Science & Business Media. [Google Scholar]

Yin, R. K. (2013). Case study research: Design and methods. Sage publications. [Google Scholar]




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5753/rbie.2016.24.3.31

____________________________________________________________________________

Revista Brasileira de Informática na Educação (RBIE) (ISSN: 1414-5685; online: 2317-6121)
Brazilian Journal of Computers in Education (RBIE) (ISSN: 1414-5685; online: 2317-6121)